10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design
启发式评估 Heuristic evaluation - Jakob Nielsen
Jakob Nielsen的启发式可能是用户界面设计中最常用的可用性启发。Jakob Nielsen 开发了启发法,基于在1990年与Rolf Molich一起工作的内容。由Nielsen于1994年发布的最终版启发规则至今仍在使用。 发表在尼尔森《Usability Engineering》书中的启发如下：
审美和逐步披露 | 简约的设计
Heuristic evaluation 原文
Jakob Nielsen's heuristics are probably the most-used usability heuristics for user interface design. Nielsen developed the heuristics based on work together with Rolf Molich in 1990.The final set of heuristics that are still used today were released by Nielsen in 1994. The heuristics as published in Nielsen's book Usability Engineering are as follows
Visibility of system status
The system should always keep users informed about what is going on, through appropriate feedback within reasonable time.
Match between system and the real world
The system should speak the user's language, with words, phrases and concepts familiar to the user, rather than system-oriented terms. Follow real-world conventions, making information appear in a natural and logical order.
User control and freedom
Users often choose system functions by mistake and will need a clearly marked "emergency exit" to leave the unwanted state without having to go through an extended dialogue. Support undo and redo.
Consistency and standards
Users should not have to wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. Follow platform conventions.
Even better than good error messages is a careful design which prevents a problem from occurring in the first place. Either eliminate error-prone conditions or check for them and present users with a confirmation option before they commit to the action.
Recognition rather than recall
Minimize the user's memory load by making objects, actions, and options visible. The user should not have to remember information from one part of the dialogue to another. Instructions for use of the system should be visible or easily retrievable whenever appropriate.
Flexibility and efficiency of use
Accelerators—unseen by the novice user—may often speed up the interaction for the expert user such that the system can cater to both inexperienced and experienced users. Allow users to tailor frequent actions.
Aesthetic and minimalist design
Dialogues should not contain information which is irrelevant or rarely needed. Every extra unit of information in a dialogue competes with the relevant units of information and diminishes their relative visibility.
Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors
Error messages should be expressed in plain language (no codes), precisely indicate the problem, and constructively suggest a solution.
Help and documentation
Even though it is better if the system can be used without documentation, it may be necessary to provide help and documentation. Any such information should be easy to search, focused on the user's task, list concrete steps to be carried out, and not be too large.
Gerhardt-Powals' cognitive engineering principles 原文
Gerhardt-Powals' cognitive engineering principles
Although Nielsen is considered the expert and field leader in heuristic evaluation, Jill Gerhardt-Powals developed a set of cognitive engineering principles for enhancing human-computer performance. These heuristics, or principles, are similar to Nielsen's heuristics but take a more holistic approach to evaluation. Gerhardt Powals' principles are listed below.
Automate unwanted workload
Eliminate mental calculations, estimations, comparisons, and any unnecessary thinking, to free cognitive resources for high-level tasks.
Display data in a manner that is clear and obvious to reduce decision time and error.
Bring together lower level data into a higher level summation to reduce cognitive load.
Present new information with meaningful aids to interpretation
New information should be presented within familiar frameworks (e.g., schemas, metaphors, everyday terms) so that information is easier to absorb.
Use names that are conceptually related to function
Display names and labels should be context-dependent, which will improve recall and recognition.
Group data in consistently meaningful ways
Within a screen, data should be logically grouped; across screens, it should be consistently grouped. This will decrease information search time.
Limit data-driven tasks
Use color and graphics, for example, to reduce the time spent assimilating raw data.
Include in the displays only that information needed by the user at a given time
Exclude extraneous information that is not relevant to current tasks so that the user can focus attention on critical data.
Provide multiple coding of data when appropriate
The system should provide data in varying formats and/or levels of detail in order to promote cognitive flexibility and satisfy user preferences.
Practice judicious redundancy
Principle 10 was devised by the first two authors to resolve the possible conflict between Principles 6 and 8, that is, in order to be consistent, it is sometimes necessary to include more information than may be needed at a given time.
Weinschenk & Barker 分类
Weinschenk and Barker classification 原文
Susan Weinschenk and Dean Barker created a categorization of heuristics and guidelines by several major providers into the following twenty types:
The interface will allow the user to perceive that they are in control and will allow appropriate control.
The interface will not overload the user’s cognitive, visual, auditory, tactile, or motor limits.
The interface will fit individual tasks within whatever modality is being used: auditory, visual, or motor/kinesthetic.
The interface will fit the way each user group works and thinks.
The interface will communicate as efficiently as possible.
The interface will have an attractive and appropriate design.
The interface will present elements simply.
The interface will behave in a manner such that users can accurately predict what will happen next.
The interface will make reasonable guesses about what the user is trying to do.
The interface will be free from errors.
The interface will have the highest possible fidelity.
The interface will allow the user to adjust the design for custom use.
The interface will provide a satisfying user experience.
The interface will match the user’s social customs and expectations.
The interface will operate at a tempo suitable to the user.
The interface will be consistent.
The interface will provide additional assistance as needed or requested.
The interface will allow the users to perform a task exactly.
The interface will make actions recoverable.
The interface will inform users about the results of their actions and the interface’s status.
- Togs Usability Guidelines
- 8 C Framework