10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design

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启发式评估 Heuristic evaluation - Jakob Nielsen

Jakob Nielsen的启发式可能是用户界面设计中最常用的可用性启发。Jakob Nielsen 开发了启发法,基于在1990年与Rolf Molich一起工作的内容。由Nielsen于1994年发布的最终版启发规则至今仍在使用。 发表在尼尔森《Usability Engineering》书中的启发如下:

  1. 系统状态的可见性

    系统应始终保持用户了解正在执行什么,通过合理时间内的适合反馈。

  2. 匹配系统和现实世界

    系统应该使用符合用户习惯和用户熟悉的语言,包括术语、概念等等。而不是使用以系统为中心的术语。系统应该遵循现实世界的惯例,让信息以更自然和符合逻辑的顺序出现。

  3. 用户控制和自由

    用户有时会不小心错误地选择系统的功能,因此需要一个清楚的“紧急退出”去退出与期望不符的场景,而非经历整个对话。应该能支持撤销和恢复。

  4. 一致性和标准

    用户不应该考虑不同的单词、状态、操作是否意味着同样的事情。应当保持平台的统一性。

  5. 错误预防

    一个事先就能预防出错的设计,要比好的错误提示信息好的多。应当在用户行动以前,就消除能诱使犯错的条件,必要时提醒用户确认操作。防患于未然。

  6. 认识,而不是记忆

    • 通过让对象,动作,和选项可见来减轻用户的记忆负担。
    • 用户不必去记忆不同对话框里的信息。
    • 使用可见的指示或者检索来帮助用户使用系统
  7. 灵活性和利用效率

    • 快捷菜单可以帮助加速专业用户和系统的交互
    • 允许用户定制常用的选项
  8. 审美和逐步披露 | 简约的设计

    • 用户界面上不应该包含太多无关或很少被用到的信息
    • 每一个多余的信息都会减少有用信息的可见性
  9. 帮助用户识别,诊断和从错误中恢复

    错误信息应该用通俗易懂的语言表达(而非代码),准确抵说明这个问题,并提出建设性的解决方案。

  10. 帮助和文档

    即使不使用帮助文档系统也可以使用,提供帮助和说明文档是必要的。 任何帮助信息都应该容易被查找,关注用户任务,列出具体的步骤去完成任务而不是只给大方向。

Heuristic evaluation 原文

Jakob Nielsen's heuristics are probably the most-used usability heuristics for user interface design. Nielsen developed the heuristics based on work together with Rolf Molich in 1990.The final set of heuristics that are still used today were released by Nielsen in 1994. The heuristics as published in Nielsen's book Usability Engineering are as follows

  1. Visibility of system status

    The system should always keep users informed about what is going on, through appropriate feedback within reasonable time.

  2. Match between system and the real world

    The system should speak the user's language, with words, phrases and concepts familiar to the user, rather than system-oriented terms. Follow real-world conventions, making information appear in a natural and logical order.

  3. User control and freedom

    Users often choose system functions by mistake and will need a clearly marked "emergency exit" to leave the unwanted state without having to go through an extended dialogue. Support undo and redo.

  4. Consistency and standards

    Users should not have to wonder whether different words, situations, or actions mean the same thing. Follow platform conventions.

  5. Error prevention

    Even better than good error messages is a careful design which prevents a problem from occurring in the first place. Either eliminate error-prone conditions or check for them and present users with a confirmation option before they commit to the action.

  6. Recognition rather than recall

    Minimize the user's memory load by making objects, actions, and options visible. The user should not have to remember information from one part of the dialogue to another. Instructions for use of the system should be visible or easily retrievable whenever appropriate.

  7. Flexibility and efficiency of use

    Accelerators—unseen by the novice user—may often speed up the interaction for the expert user such that the system can cater to both inexperienced and experienced users. Allow users to tailor frequent actions.

  8. Aesthetic and minimalist design

    Dialogues should not contain information which is irrelevant or rarely needed. Every extra unit of information in a dialogue competes with the relevant units of information and diminishes their relative visibility.

  9. Help users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors

    Error messages should be expressed in plain language (no codes), precisely indicate the problem, and constructively suggest a solution.

  10. Help and documentation

    Even though it is better if the system can be used without documentation, it may be necessary to provide help and documentation. Any such information should be easy to search, focused on the user's task, list concrete steps to be carried out, and not be too large.

Gerhardt-Powal 的认知工程学原理

  1. 自动化不必要的工作负荷

    消除心智计算,评估,比较和任何不必要的思考,为高级任务释放认知资源。

  2. 降低不确定性

    以清晰明确的方式显示数据,以减少决策时间和错误。

  3. 融合数据

    将较低级别的数据汇总多更高级别的摘要,以减少认知负荷。

  4. 有意义地呈现新信息,以助于理解

    新的信息应该以熟悉的框架呈现(如:模式、隐喻、日常词汇),使信息更容易理解。

  5. 使用与功能相关的名称

    显示名称和标签应与上下文相关,有助于记忆识别

  6. 以一致的、语义化的方式组织资料

    数据应按逻辑、一致性的分组,以便于减少信息搜索时间。

  7. 限制数据驱动的任务

    使用适当的图形、颜色帮助改善数据解读。

  8. 仅显示必要的信息

    排除与当前任务无关的无关信息,以便用户可以将注意力集中在关键数据上。

  9. 适当提供多种数据格式

    系统适当提供不同格式或详细程度的数据,以提高认知灵活性并满足用户偏好。

  10. 适当的冗余

    为了解决原则6和8之间的冲突,有时需要提供适当的冗余信息设计。

Gerhardt-Powals' cognitive engineering principles 原文

Gerhardt-Powals' cognitive engineering principles

Although Nielsen is considered the expert and field leader in heuristic evaluation, Jill Gerhardt-Powals developed a set of cognitive engineering principles for enhancing human-computer performance. These heuristics, or principles, are similar to Nielsen's heuristics but take a more holistic approach to evaluation. Gerhardt Powals' principles are listed below.

  1. Automate unwanted workload

    Eliminate mental calculations, estimations, comparisons, and any unnecessary thinking, to free cognitive resources for high-level tasks.

  2. Reduce uncertainty

    Display data in a manner that is clear and obvious to reduce decision time and error.

  3. Fuse data

    Bring together lower level data into a higher level summation to reduce cognitive load.

  4. Present new information with meaningful aids to interpretation

    New information should be presented within familiar frameworks (e.g., schemas, metaphors, everyday terms) so that information is easier to absorb.

  5. Use names that are conceptually related to function

    Display names and labels should be context-dependent, which will improve recall and recognition.

  6. Group data in consistently meaningful ways

    Within a screen, data should be logically grouped; across screens, it should be consistently grouped. This will decrease information search time.

  7. Limit data-driven tasks

    Use color and graphics, for example, to reduce the time spent assimilating raw data.

  8. Include in the displays only that information needed by the user at a given time

    Exclude extraneous information that is not relevant to current tasks so that the user can focus attention on critical data.

  9. Provide multiple coding of data when appropriate

    The system should provide data in varying formats and/or levels of detail in order to promote cognitive flexibility and satisfy user preferences.

  10. Practice judicious redundancy

    Principle 10 was devised by the first two authors to resolve the possible conflict between Principles 6 and 8, that is, in order to be consistent, it is sometimes necessary to include more information than may be needed at a given time.

Weinschenk & Barker 分类

Weinschenk and Barker classification 原文

Susan Weinschenk and Dean Barker created a categorization of heuristics and guidelines by several major providers into the following twenty types:

  1. User Control

    The interface will allow the user to perceive that they are in control and will allow appropriate control.

  2. Human Limitations

    The interface will not overload the user’s cognitive, visual, auditory, tactile, or motor limits.

  3. Modal Integrity

    The interface will fit individual tasks within whatever modality is being used: auditory, visual, or motor/kinesthetic.

  4. Accommodation

    The interface will fit the way each user group works and thinks.

  5. Linguistic Clarity

    The interface will communicate as efficiently as possible.

  6. Aesthetic Integrity

    The interface will have an attractive and appropriate design.

  7. Simplicity

    The interface will present elements simply.

  8. Predictability

    The interface will behave in a manner such that users can accurately predict what will happen next.

  9. Interpretation

    The interface will make reasonable guesses about what the user is trying to do.

  10. Accuracy

    The interface will be free from errors.

  11. Technical Clarity

    The interface will have the highest possible fidelity.

  12. Flexibility

    The interface will allow the user to adjust the design for custom use.

  13. Fulfillment

    The interface will provide a satisfying user experience.

  14. Cultural Propriety

    The interface will match the user’s social customs and expectations.

  15. Suitable Tempo

    The interface will operate at a tempo suitable to the user.

  16. Consistency

    The interface will be consistent.

  17. User Support

    The interface will provide additional assistance as needed or requested.

  18. Precision

    The interface will allow the users to perform a task exactly.

  19. Forgiveness

    The interface will make actions recoverable.

  20. Responsiveness

    The interface will inform users about the results of their actions and the interface’s status.

其他评估方法:

  • Togs Usability Guidelines
  • 8 C Framework